While pasta is cooking, heat the olive oil over medium high heat in a large skillet. Add the shallots, carrots, broccoli, and red bell pepper. Cook for about 5-6 minutes until beginning to soften. Add the zucchini and cook for 3-4 more minutes. The vegetables should be just tender-crisp.
Add the vegetables to the cooked pasta. Stir in the Parmesan cheese and about ¼ cup of pasta cooking liquid. Stir to form a creamy sauce. If needed, add more pasta cooking liquid to the sauce, up to about 1/2 cup.